Some minor offences are not prosecuted at the instigation of the public prosecutor, but only upon authorisation by the victim.
Criminal proceedings are only conducted if the victim brings private charges against the offender. In this way, the victim becomes a private prosecutor.
In this case, there are no investigative proceedings. Private prosecutors must prove all facts which are relevant for a conviction.
They may resort to the same means as the public prosecutor, except for coercive measures such as the detention the defendant or applying for pre-trial detention.
If the offender is acquitted, private prosecutors will have to defray the costs of the proceedings.